Links

OPINIÃO


Study for the head of Elizabeth Siddal. Drawing by John Everett Millais.


Ophelia. Painting by John Everett Millais.


The Return of Tibullus to Delia. Draft by Dante Gabriel Rossetti.


The Return of Tibullus to Delia. Watercolour by Dante Gabriel Rossetti.


Beata Beatrix. Painting by Dante Gabriel Rossetti.


Call, I follow; I follow, let me die. Photography by Julia Margaret Cameron. 

Outros artigos:

CARLA CARBONE

2019-08-20
FERNANDO LEMOS DESIGNER

DONNY CORREIA

2019-07-18
ANA AMORIM: MAPAS MENTAIS DE UMA VIDA-OBRA

CARLA CARBONE

2019-06-02
JOÃO ONOFRE - ONCE IN A LIFETIME [REPEAT]

LAURA CASTRO

2019-04-16
FORA DA CIDADE. ARTE E ARQUITECTURA E LUGAR

ISABEL COSTA

2019-03-09
CURADORIA DA MEMÓRIA: HANS ULRICH OBRIST INTERVIEW PROJECT

BEATRIZ COELHO

2018-12-22
JOSEP MAYNOU - ENTREVISTA

CONSTANÇA BABO

2018-11-17
CHRISTIAN BOLTANSKI NO FÓRUM DO FUTURO

KATY STEWART

2018-10-16
ENTRE A MEMÓRIA E O SEU APAGAMENTO: O GRANDE KILAPY DE ZÉZÉ GAMBOA E O LEGADO DO COLONIALISMO PORTUGUÊS

HELENA OSÓRIO

2018-09-13
JORGE LIMA BARRETO: CRIADOR DO CONCEITO DE MÚSICA MINIMALISTA REPETITIVA

CONSTANÇA BABO

2018-07-29
VER AS VOZES DOS ARTISTAS NO METRO DO PORTO, COM CURADORIA DE MIGUEL VON HAFE PÉREZ

JOANA CONSIGLIERI

2018-06-14
EXPANSÃO DA ARTE POR LISBOA, DUAS VISÕES DE FEIRAS DE ARTE: ARCOLISBOA E JUSTLX - FEIRAS INTERNACIONAIS DE ARTE CONTEMPORÂNEA

RUI MATOSO

2018-05-12
E AGORA, O QUE FAZEMOS COM ISTO?

HELENA OSÓRIO

2018-03-30
PARTE II - A FAMOSA RAINHA NZINGA (OU NJINGA) – TÃO AMADA, QUANTO TEMIDA E ODIADA, EM ÁFRICA E NO MUNDO

HELENA OSÓRIO

2018-02-28
PARTE I - A RAINHA NZINGA E O TRAJE NA PERSPECTIVA DE GRACINDA CANDEIAS: 21 OBRAS DOADAS AO CONSULADO-GERAL DA REPÚBLICA DE ANGOLA NO PORTO. POLÉMICAS DO SÉCULO XVII À ATUALIDADE

MARIA VLACHOU

2018-01-25
CAN WE LISTEN? (PODEMOS OUVIR?)

FERNANDA BELIZÁRIO E RITA ALCAIRE

2017-12-23
O QUE HÁ DE QUEER EM QUEERMUSEU?

ALEXANDRA JOÃO MARTINS

2017-11-11
O QUE PODE O CINEMA?

LUÍS RAPOSO

2017-10-08
A CASA DA HISTÓRIA EUROPEIA: AFINAL A MONTANHA NÃO PARIU UM RATO, MAS QUASE

MARC LENOT

2017-09-03
CORPOS RECOMPOSTOS

MARC LENOT

2017-07-29
QUER PASSAR A NOITE NO MUSEU?

LUÍS RAPOSO

2017-06-30
PATRIMÓNIO CULTURAL E MUSEUS: O QUE ESTÁ POR DETRÁS DOS “CASOS”

MARZIA BRUNO

2017-05-31
UM LAMPEJO DE LIBERDADE

SERGIO PARREIRA

2017-04-26
ENTREVISTA COM AMANDA COULSON, DIRETORA ARTÍSTICA DA VOLTA FEIRA DE ARTE

LUÍS RAPOSO

2017-03-30
A TRAGICOMÉDIA DA DESCENTRALIZAÇÃO, OU DE COMO SE ARRISCA ESTRAGAR UMA BOA IDEIA

SÉRGIO PARREIRA

2017-03-03
ARTE POLÍTICA E DE PROTESTO | THE TRUMP EFFECT

LUÍS RAPOSO

2017-01-31
ESTATÍSTICAS, MUSEUS E SOCIEDADE EM PORTUGAL - PARTE 2: O CURTO PRAZO

LUÍS RAPOSO

2017-01-13
ESTATÍSTICAS, MUSEUS E SOCIEDADE EM PORTUGAL – PARTE 1: O LONGO PRAZO

SERGIO PARREIRA

2016-12-13
A “ENTREGA” DA OBRA DE ARTE

ANA CRISTINA LEITE

2016-11-08
A MINHA VISITA GUIADA À EXPOSIÇÃO...OU COISAS DO CORAÇÃO

NATÁLIA VILARINHO

2016-10-03
ATLAS DE GALANTE E BORRALHO EM LOULÉ

MARIA LIND

2016-08-31
NAZGOL ANSARINIA – OS CONTRASTES E AS CONTRADIÇÕES DA VIDA NA TEERÃO CONTEMPORÂNEA

LUÍS RAPOSO

2016-06-23
“RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL”, INVESTIMENTO EM ARTE E MUSEUS: OS PONTOS NOS IS

TERESA DUARTE MARTINHO

2016-05-12
ARTE, AMOR E CRISE NA LONDRES VITORIANA. O LIVRO ADOECER, DE HÉLIA CORREIA

LUÍS RAPOSO

2016-04-12
AINDA OS PREÇOS DE ENTRADA EM MUSEUS E MONUMENTOS DE SINTRA E BELÉM-AJUDA: OS DADOS E UMA PROPOSTA PARA O FUTURO

DÁRIA SALGADO

2016-03-18
A PAISAGEM COMO SUPORTE DE REPRESENTAÇÃO CINEMATOGRÁFICA NA OBRA DE ANDREI TARKOVSKY

VICTOR PINTO DA FONSECA

2016-02-16
CORAÇÃO REVELADOR

MIRIAN TAVARES

2016-01-06
ABSOLUTELY

CONSTANÇA BABO

2015-11-28
A PROCURA DE FELICIDADE DE WOLFGANG TILLMANS

INÊS VALLE

2015-10-31
A VERDADEIRA MUDANÇA ACABA DE COMEÇAR | UMA ENTREVISTA COM O GALERISTA ZIMBABUEANO JIMMY SARUCHERA PELA CURADORA INDEPENDENTE INÊS VALLE

MARIBEL MENDES SOBREIRA

2015-09-17
PARA UMA CONCEPÇÃO DA ARTE SEGUNDO MARKUS GABRIEL

RENATO RODRIGUES DA SILVA

2015-07-22
O CONCRETISMO E O NEOCONCRETISMO NO BRASIL: ELEMENTOS PARA REFLEXÃO CRÍTICA

LUÍS RAPOSO

2015-07-02
PATRIMÓNIO CULTURAL E OS MUSEUS: VISÃO ESTRATÉGICA | PARTE 2: O PRESENTE/FUTURO

LUÍS RAPOSO

2015-06-17
PATRIMÓNIO CULTURAL E OS MUSEUS: VISÃO ESTRATÉGICA | PARTE 1: O PASSADO/PRESENTE

ALBERTO MORENO

2015-05-13
OS CORVOS OLHAM-NOS

Ana Cristina Alves

2015-04-12
PSICOLOGIA DA ARTE – ENTREVISTA A ANTÓNIO MANUEL DUARTE

J.J. Charlesworth

2015-03-12
COMO NÃO FAZER ARTE PÚBLICA

JOSÉ RAPOSO

2015-02-02
FILMES DE ARTISTA: O ESPECTRO DA NARRATIVA ENTRE O CINEMA E A GALERIA.

MARIA LIND

2015-01-05
UM PARQUE DE DIVERSÕES EM PARIS RELEMBRA UM CONTO DE FADAS CLÁSSICO

Martim Enes Dias

2014-12-05
O PRINCÍPIO DO FUNDAMENTO: A BIENAL DE VENEZA EM 2014

MARIA LIND

2014-11-11
O TRIUNFO DOS NERDS

Jonathan T.D. Neil

2014-10-07
A ARTE É BOA OU APENAS VALIOSA?

José Raposo

2014-09-08
RUMORES DE UMA REVOLUÇÃO: O CÓDIGO ENQUANTO MEIO.

Mike Watson

2014-08-04
Em louvor da beleza

Ana Catarino

2014-06-28
Project Herácles, quando arte e política se encontram no Parlamento Europeu

Luís Raposo

2014-05-27
Ingressos em museus e monumentos: desvario e miopia

Filipa Coimbra

2014-05-06
Tanto Mar - Arquitectura em DERIVAção | Parte 2

Filipa Coimbra

2014-04-15
Tanto Mar - Arquitectura em DERIVAção | Parte 1

Rita Xavier Monteiro

2014-02-25
O AGORA QUE É LÁ

Aimee Lin

2014-01-15
ZENG FANZHI

FILIPE PINTO

2013-12-20
PERSPECTIVA E EXTRUSÃO. Uma História da Arte (parte 4 de 4)

FILIPE PINTO

2013-11-28
PERSPECTIVA E EXTRUSÃO. Uma História da Arte (parte 3 de 4)

FILIPE PINTO

2013-10-25
PERSPECTIVA E EXTRUSÃO. Uma História da Arte (parte 2 de 4)

FILIPE PINTO

2013-09-16
PERSPECTIVA E EXTRUSÃO. Uma História da Arte (parte 1 de 4)

JULIANA MORAES

2013-08-12
O LUGAR DA ARTE: O “CASTELO”, O LABIRINTO E A SOLEIRA

JUAN CANELA

2013-07-11
PERFORMING VENICE

JOSÉ GOMES PINTO (ECATI/ULHT)

2013-05-05
ARTE E INTERACTIVIDADE

PEDRO CABRAL SANTO

2013-04-11
A IMAGEM EM MOVIMENTO NO CONTEXTO ESPECÍFICO DAS ARTES PLÁSTICAS EM PORTUGAL

MARCELO FELIX

2013-01-08
O ESPAÇO E A ORLA. 50 ANOS DE ‘OS VERDES ANOS’

NUNO MATOS DUARTE

2012-12-11
SOBRE A PERTINÊNCIA DAS PRÁTICAS CONCEPTUAIS NA FOTOGRAFIA CONTEMPORÂNEA

FILIPE PINTO

2012-11-05
ASSEMBLAGE TROCKEL

MIGUEL RODRIGUES

2012-10-07
BIRD

JOSÉ BÁRTOLO

2012-09-21
CHEGOU A HORA DOS DESIGNERS

PEDRO PORTUGAL

2012-09-07
PORQUE É QUE OS ARTISTAS DIZEM MAL UNS DOS OUTROS + L’AFFAIRE VASCONCELOS

PEDRO PORTUGAL

2012-08-06
NO PRINCÍPIO ERA A VERBA

ANA SENA

2012-07-09
AS ARTES E A CRISE ECONÓMICA

MARIA BEATRIZ MARQUILHAS

2012-06-12
O DECLÍNIO DA ARTE: MORTE E TRANSFIGURAÇÃO (II)

MARIA BEATRIZ MARQUILHAS

2012-05-21
O DECLÍNIO DA ARTE: MORTE E TRANSFIGURAÇÃO (I)

JOSÉ CARLOS DUARTE

2012-03-19
A JANELA DAS POSSIBILIDADES. EM TORNO DA SÉRIE TELEVISION PORTRAITS (1986–) DE PAUL GRAHAM.

FILIPE PINTO

2012-01-16
A AUTORIDADE DO AUTOR - A PARTIR DO TRABALHO DE DORIS SALCEDO (SOBRE VAZIO, SILÊNCIO, MUDEZ)

JOSÉ CARLOS DUARTE

2011-12-07
LOUISE LAWLER. QUALQUER COISA ACERCA DO MUNDO DA ARTE, MAS NÃO RECORDO EXACTAMENTE O QUÊ.

ANANDA CARVALHO

2011-10-12
RE-CONFIGURAÇÕES NO SISTEMA DA ARTE CONTEMPORÂNEA - RELATO DA CONFERÊNCIA DE ROSALIND KRAUSS NO III SIMPÓSIO DE ARTE CONTEMPORÂNEA DO PAÇO DAS ARTES

MARIANA PESTANA

2011-09-23
ARQUITECTURA COMISSÁRIA: TODOS A BORDO # THE AUCTION ROOM

FILIPE PINTO

2011-07-27
PARA QUE SERVE A ARTE? (sobre espaço, desadequação e acesso) (2.ª parte)

FILIPE PINTO

2011-07-08
PARA QUE SERVE A ARTE? (sobre espaço, desadequação e acesso) (1ª parte)

ROSANA SANCIN

2011-06-14
54ª BIENAL DE VENEZA: ILLUMInations

SOFIA NUNES

2011-05-17
GEDI SIBONY

SOFIA NUNES

2011-04-18
A AUTONOMIA IMPRÓPRIA DA ARTE EM JACQUES RANCIÈRE

PATRÍCIA REIS

2011-03-09
IMAGE IN SCIENCE AND ART

BÁRBARA VALENTINA

2011-02-01
WALTER BENJAMIN. O LUGAR POLÍTICO DA ARTE

UM LIVRO DE NELSON BRISSAC

2011-01-12
PAISAGENS CRÍTICAS

FILIPE PINTO

2010-11-25
TRINTA NOTAS PARA UMA APROXIMAÇÃO A JACQUES RANCIÈRE

PAULA JANUÁRIO

2010-11-08
NÃO SÓ ALGUNS SÃO CHAMADOS MAS TODA A GENTE

SHAHEEN MERALI

2010-10-13
O INFINITO PROBLEMA DO GOSTO

PEDRO PORTUGAL

2010-09-22
ARTE PÚBLICA: UM VÍCIO PRIVADO

FILIPE PINTO

2010-06-09
A PROPÓSITO DE LA CIENAGA DE LUCRECIA MARTEL (Sobre Tempo, Solidão e Cinema)

TERESA CASTRO

2010-04-30
MARK LEWIS E A MORTE DO CINEMA

FILIPE PINTO

2010-03-08
PARA UMA CRÍTICA DA INTERRUPÇÃO

SUSANA MOUZINHO

2010-02-15
DAVID CLAERBOUT. PERSISTÊNCIA DO TEMPO

SOFIA NUNES

2010-01-13
O CASO DE JOS DE GRUYTER E HARALD THYS

ISABEL NOGUEIRA

2009-10-26
ANOS 70 – ATRAVESSAR FRONTEIRAS

LUÍSA SANTOS

2009-09-21
OS PRÉMIOS E A ASSINATURA INDEX:

CAROLINA RITO

2009-08-22
A NATUREZA DO CONTEXTO

LÍGIA AFONSO

2009-08-03
DE QUEM FALAMOS QUANDO FALAMOS DE VENEZA?

LUÍSA SANTOS

2009-07-10
A PROPÓSITO DO OBJECTO FOTOGRÁFICO

LUÍSA SANTOS

2009-06-24
O LIVRO COMO MEIO

EMANUEL CAMEIRA

2009-05-31
LA SPÉCIALISATION DE LA SENSIBILITÉ À L’ ÉTAT DE MATIÈRE PREMIÈRE EN SENSIBILITÉ PICTURALE STABILISÉE

ROSANA SANCIN

2009-05-23
RE.ACT FEMINISM_Liubliana

IVO MESQUITA E ANA PAULA COHEN

2009-05-03
RELATÓRIO DA CURADORIA DA 28ª BIENAL DE SÃO PAULO

EMANUEL CAMEIRA

2009-04-15
DE QUE FALAMOS QUANDO FALAMOS DE TEHCHING HSIEH? *

MARTA MESTRE

2009-03-24
ARTE CONTEMPORÂNEA NOS CAMARÕES

MARTA TRAQUINO

2009-03-04
DA CONSTRUÇÃO DO LUGAR PELA ARTE CONTEMPORÂNEA III_A ARTE COMO UM ESTADO DE ENCONTRO

PEDRO DOS REIS

2009-02-18
O “ANO DO BOI” – PREVISÕES E REFLEXÕES NO CONTEXTO ARTÍSTICO

MARTA TRAQUINO

2009-02-02
DA CONSTRUÇÃO DO LUGAR PELA ARTE CONTEMPORÂNEA II_DO ESPAÇO AO LUGAR: FLUXUS

PEDRO PORTUGAL

2009-01-08
PORQUÊ CONSTRUIR NOVAS ESCOLAS DE ARTE?

MARTA TRAQUINO

2008-12-18
DA CONSTRUÇÃO DO LUGAR PELA ARTE CONTEMPORÂNEA I

SANDRA LOURENÇO

2008-12-02
HONG KONG A DÉJÀ DISPARU?

PEDRO DOS REIS

2008-10-31
ARTE POLÍTICA E TELEPRESENÇA

PEDRO DOS REIS

2008-10-15
A ARTE NA ERA DA TECNOLOGIA MÓVEL

SUSANA POMBA

2008-09-30
SOMOS TODOS RAVERS

COLECTIVO

2008-09-01
O NADA COMO TEMA PARA REFLEXÃO

PEDRO PORTUGAL

2008-08-04
BI DA CULTURA. Ou, que farei com esta cultura?

PAULO REIS

2008-07-16
V BIENAL DE SÃO TOMÉ E PRÍNCIPE | PARTILHAR TERRITÓRIOS

PEDRO DOS REIS

2008-06-18
LISBOA – CULTURE FOR LIFE

PEDRO PORTUGAL

2008-05-16
SOBRE A ARTICIDADE (ou os artistas dentro da cidade)

JOSÉ MANUEL BÁRTOLO

2008-05-05
O QUE PODEM AS IDEIAS? REFLEXÕES SOBRE OS PERSONAL VIEWS

PAULA TAVARES

2008-04-22
BREVE CARTOGRAFIA DAS CORRENTES DESCONSTRUTIVISTAS FEMINISTAS

PEDRO DOS REIS

2008-04-04
IOWA: UMA SELECÇÃO IMPROVÁVEL, NUM LUGAR INVULGAR

CATARINA ROSENDO

2008-03-31
ROGÉRIO RIBEIRO (1930-2008): O PINTOR QUE ABRIU AO TEXTO

JOANA LUCAS

2008-02-18
RUY DUARTE DE CARVALHO: pela miscigenação das artes

DANIELA LABRA

2008-01-16
O MEIO DA ARTE NO BRASIL: um Lugar Nenhum em Algum Lugar

LÍGIA AFONSO

2007-12-24
SÃO PAULO JÁ ESTÁ A ARDER?

JOSÉ LUIS BREA

2007-12-05
A TAREFA DA CRÍTICA (EM SETE TESES)

SÍLVIA GUERRA

2007-11-11
ARTE IBÉRICA OU O SÍNDROME DO COLECCIONADOR LOCAL

SANDRA VIEIRA JURGENS

2007-11-01
10ª BIENAL DE ISTAMBUL

TERESA CASTRO

2007-10-16
PARA ALÉM DE PARIS

MARCELO FELIX

2007-09-20
TRANSNATURAL. Da Vida dos Impérios, da Vida das Imagens

LÍGIA AFONSO

2007-09-04
skulptur projekte münster 07

JOSÉ BÁRTOLO

2007-08-20
100 POSTERS PARA UM SÉCULO

SOFIA PONTE

2007-08-02
SOBRE UM ESTADO DE TRANSIÇÃO

INÊS MOREIRA

2007-07-02
GATHERING: REECONTRAR MODOS DE ENCONTRO

FILIPA RAMOS

2007-06-14
A Arte, a Guerra e a Subjectividade – um passeio pelos Giardini e Arsenal na 52ª BIENAL DE VENEZA

SÍLVIA GUERRA

2007-06-01
MAC/VAL: Zones de Productivités Concertées. # 3 Entreprises singulières

NUNO CRESPO

2007-05-02
SEXO, SANGUE E MORTE

HELENA BARRANHA

2007-04-17
O edifício como “BLOCKBUSTER”. O protagonismo da arquitectura nos museus de arte contemporânea

RUI PEDRO FONSECA

2007-04-03
A ARTE NO MERCADO – SEUS DISCURSOS COMO UTOPIA

ALBERTO GUERREIRO

2007-03-16
Gestão de Museus em Portugal [2]

ANTÓNIO PRETO

2007-02-28
ENTRE O SPLEEN MODERNO E A CRISE DA MODERNIDADE

ALBERTO GUERREIRO

2007-02-15
Gestão de Museus em Portugal [1]

JOSÉ BÁRTOLO

2007-01-29
CULTURA DIGITAL E CRIAÇÃO ARTÍSTICA

MARCELO FELIX

2007-01-16
O TEMPO DE UM ÍCONE CINEMATOGRÁFICO

PEDRO PORTUGAL

2007-01-03
Artória - ARS LONGA VITA BREVIS

ANTÓNIO PRETO

2006-12-15
CORRESPONDÊNCIAS: Aproximações contemporâneas a uma “iconologia do intervalo”

ROGER MEINTJES

2006-11-16
MANUTENÇÃO DE MEMÓRIA: Alguns pensamentos sobre Memória Pública – Berlim, Lajedos e Lisboa.

LUÍSA ESPECIAL

2006-11-03
PARA UMA GEOSOFIA DAS EXPOSIÇÕES GLOBAIS. Contra o safari cultural

ANTÓNIO PRETO

2006-10-18
AS IMAGENS DO QUOTIDIANO OU DE COMO O REALISMO É UMA FRAUDE

JOSÉ BÁRTOLO

2006-10-01
O ESTADO DO DESIGN. Reflexões sobre teoria do design em Portugal

JOSÉ MAÇÃS DE CARVALHO

2006-09-18
IMAGENS DA FOTOGRAFIA

INÊS MOREIRA

2006-09-04
ELLIPSE FOUNDATION - NOTAS SOBRE O ART CENTRE

MARCELO FELIX

2006-08-17
BAS JAN ADER, TRINTA ANOS SOBRE O ÚLTIMO TRAJECTO

JORGE DIAS

2006-08-01
UM PERCURSO POR SEGUIR

SÍLVIA GUERRA

2006-07-14
A MOLDURA DO CINEASTA

AIDA CASTRO

2006-06-30
BIO-MUSEU: UMA CONDIÇÃO, NO MÍNIMO, TRIPLOMÓRFICA

COLECTIVO*

2006-06-14
NEM TUDO SÃO ROSEIRAS

LÍGIA AFONSO

2006-05-17
VICTOR PALLA (1922 - 2006)

JOÃO SILVÉRIO

2006-04-12
VIENA, 22 a 26 de Março de 2006


ART, LOVE AND CRISIS IN VICTORIAN LONDON. THE BOOK ADOECER BY HÉLIA CORREIA



TERESA DUARTE MARTINHO

2016-05-11




 

Elizabeth Siddal was sewing hats, in a milliner’s workshop near Leicester Square, in London in 1850, when the mother of a painter came looking for her. Elizabeth would have been about 20 years old then. She was from a poor family, living in Southwark, and the visit surprised her. Walter Deverell, a painter who was close to the Pre-Raphaelites, had her in his sights; she was the redhead whom a friend of his had settled on in the street, the woman who would make “a splendid Viola” in the painting on which he was working, Twelfth Night, based on Shakespeare’s play. On being approached by Deverell’s mother, Elisabeth’s family gave her permission to do so, and she posed, with a mixture of ease and containment. In the second session Dante Gabriel Rossetti – who worked on the canvas as a painter and was also the model for Feste, the jester – was also present, together with John Everett Millais. The latter was impressed by the model’s movement and dedication and felt he ought to paint her lying in a river, in a greenish atmosphere. For this famous painting, Ophelia (1851-1852), undertaken in Millais’ home, Elizabeth slid into the improvised bathtub, wearing a dress “of decadent luxury”, and once again performed in accordance with her will to “enter into that world and cross it, without getting burned by it” (p.49). While concentrating on her pose, immersed in water which was getting colder by the minute, she decided she was not going back to the millinery. At that very moment she was “being cleansed of her previous life. Ophelia got under her skin, almost as if the water had some power of osmosis and took with it, as it emptied out, the episode of the little seamstress” (p.68). Millais, in turn, found himself painting “that which he had never intended to paint: an incitement to necrophiliac emotions” (p.60).

The quotations above are from Adoecer (2010) by Hélia Correia [1], a book emerging from the writer’s extensive research focused on the life of Elizabeth Siddal (Lizzie, from here on in), from the time she became close to the pre-Raphaelites until her death in February 1862. It includes the time she spent in a relationship with Gabriel Rossetti, as a common law wife, as part of a couple who to the outside world were “pupil” and “master”, he being just a year older than she was. Gabriel grew up in an arts-connected family in which Italian was spoken, studied in the most distinguished art schools in London, was a writer, translated Vita Nuova, and combined being an extrovert with a certain mysticism. Lizzie was poor, had artistic inclinations, and “an arrogance which dissuaded and frightened those around her a little” (p.72), but at the same time drew people towards her. Her excessive thinness and long red hair are said to have had a powerful impact on Gabriel Rossetti, as if she were taking up a place which had already been prepared by his imagination. He who was the soul of the Pre-Raphaelites, as well as a man of extremes – he was lazy, but also a hard worker; opposed to property, but dominating; took advantage of others, but was generous – knew that only one force would shake him: “destiny”. While still very young, Hélia Correia writes, Gabriel started a short story which he only finished much later, in which the narrator tells of his passion for a “beauty which was the incarnation of the Italian painter’s muse”. It was his own imagination which was best at welcoming destiny and fatality, that “almost divine faculty which perceives immediately and without philosophical methods the inner and secret relations of things, the correspondences and analogies”, in Baudelaire’s 1857 definition [2]. André Breton too entered into this game of revealing magical correspondences and correlations, speaking jubilantly of the force of chance, which turned the “imaginary adventure”, which he described in an old poem (Sunflower), into the realization “impressive in its rigor (…) of this adventure in life itself”, when he met the one who seemed “swathed in mist” and would become his wife [3].

The many drawings which Gabriel did of Lizzie, and the more rare artworks by Lizzie herself, bear witness to their intimacy and complicity. They lived together initially so that Lizzie might herself become an artist, drawing, painting and writing poetry. In Victorian England a woman like her, who had a polished air yet was poor, was fertile ground for charity. The nation was at the height of its power, but suffered from a societal crisis which demanded new forms of social organization, and reforms which might help to mitigate the shock of the industrial revolution. John Ruskin, the historian and collector who dictated English taste and was essentially an educator, gave Lizzie various directions for improvement and provided financial support, because helping the ‘pupil’ Lizzie meant helping the ‘master’ Gabriel Rossetti too. Charity was offensive to her, however, and did nothing to mitigate her constant social unease: apart from the times she was alone with Gabriel, “the human landscape was nothing more than a threatening maelstrom” (p.94). Melancholy would take hold of her, she would fall ill, then disappear to convalesce and call to Gabriel from afar, asking him to join her, and he would follow. Marriage, in 1860, and their stillborn baby in the following year, and even a struggle for space, would rekindle the tensions in this couple, with her helplessness overwhelming their union. Her appeals were no longer imperatives he accepted, they tended to be seen as summons; and Gabriel did not want to be owned, any more than he wanted to be the owner of any single type of property, including female company.

Amongst the more attractive poorer women, Lizzie upset and upended established social class roles, including the role in which lower class women were used for the sexual initiation and socialization of upper class men. Her contained appearance, her always self-protective way of moving, and her fragile air – which impressed Gabriel’s refined circles of acquaintance, who had no idea of how strong was the fibre in her, the fibre of rage –, distanced her from the type of “cheerful women” (p.244), sought after and desired by painters in the streets of well-known districts, who then followed them to their studios, where their work as models and sexual intercourse followed each other as if by mechanical arrangement. Lizzie, who came into the art world as a model, fled from having to survive by such mechanical means; she had saved it up, perhaps, for her intimacy with Gabriel.

A visit to the world of Gabriel Rossetti – his drawings, watercolours and paintings – provides clear evidence of Lizzie’s overwhelming presence. She is continuously on the artist’s stage, where he draws and sculpts her. A notable example is the watercolour entitled The Return of Tibullus to Delia [4] inspired by the poems of Tibullus, a Latin lyric poet, in which he implores his lover to wait for him until he returns. In the watercolour, Delia (Lizzie) hears music with her eyes closed, becomes absorbed, and in that state of suspension she too escapes. This figure appears again, larger still and with even greater fervour, in the painting called Beata Beatrix, produced in the last month of Lizzie’s life, in which the painter saw his wife “totally fused with Beatrix, seeing the heightened beauty which he had always glimpsed in Lizzie but which eluded him, because it was not part of a living body. (…) and thus appeared the painting of Beata Beatrix, that portrait of the beloved wife, taken in ecstasy by an excess of poppies” (p.279). A particular resemblance has already been noted between Beata Beatrix and Julia Margaret Cameron’s photograph of 1867, Call, I follow; I follow, let me die (1867), but it is not known to what extent that photograph may also have influenced him; it is highly likely that he knew of Cameron’s photographs, because the Autotype Company’s publication was widely disseminated [5]. The painting and the photograph were part of the exhibition entitled Painting with Light. Art and Photography from the Pre-Raphaelites to the modern age, curated by Carol Jacobi (Tate Britain, 11 May – 25 September 2016).

In focusing on some scenes from the art world of Britain in the nineteenth century, Hélia Correia’s book is a gentle instructional for those who would investigate that world, it being perhaps better to enjoy the party and live with lucidity, rather than get stuck in disenchantment. For the art world is not immune to competition and the laws of the group, and choices are made out of sympathy and admiration often interwoven with ricochets and settling of scores. In the period covered by the book, John Ruskin, for example, “dictated who could and who couldn’t be on the list of acquisitions”. Ruskin wrote to at least one baroness who was inclined to patronage and charity, forbidding her the works of the painter Ford Madox Brown, who was one of the closest friends of Gabriel Rossetti and William Morris, even though he was not a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. All because John Ruskin, who was at one time regarded as “a kind of Jay Jopling of his time” [6], thought that “he, being as he was, a high-level educator, did not have to value anyone. Like a father, he punished with his eyes” (p.144). It is told that Ruskin asked Ford Madox Brown, in connection with his painting An English Autumn Afternoon (1852-1853), why he had done such an “ugly” view of the roofs of the already celebrated area of Hampstead. Madox Brown replied that he had painted it from a window which gave out on to the backs of the buildings, and walked off in the opposite direction [7].

The festive and gregarious side of the art world is visible in particular in the Red House project, in Kent, which was the brainchild of William Morris and Philip Webb, the artist and the architect who designed a red house inside and out, with nooks of castle and cathedral, inhabited by people connected in a brotherhood of tastes, affections and utopias. Here too, where the pre-Raphaelites and those close to them spent many spells from 1859 onwards, Lizzie felt ill at ease, not least because she had to live with the game of attraction between Gabriel Rossetti and Jane Morris, the woman who even today casts her eyes in only one direction, her own, who came out of poverty to be a model and a companion to artists. It was also said that Lizzie caught the contagion of the utopian spirit which lent its flavour to the group at that time. In Clevedon, by the sea, a boy asked her if, in the land where she lived, boys like him had to work; she straight away answered no, they didn’t, and “set about describing a utopia, a land of gold in which lions at night would drink from the lakes in the gardens and would allow the children to put garlands of magnolias around their necks. She explained to him that magnolias were enormous flowers, made as if out of velvet” (p. 190).

In a 1984 exhibition at the Tate Gallery of 250 Pre-Raphaelite works, Elizabeth Siddal was the only woman represented. Seven years later, the Ruskin Gallery, in Sheffield, hosted a retrospective of her work. In an article written for the exhibition, Jan Marsh argued that the work of Elizabeth Siddal may be small in size and scope, but even so, because it was “serious-minded” and “modestly successful”, it deserved a significant place in the history of Pre-Raphaelite art [8]. And speaking of recognition, the year 1857 brought Lizzie good and bad news. In an exhibition in Russell Square, in which she was the only Pre-Raphaelite woman represented, her work received positive reviews, and she even sold a painting to an American, giving her “glimpses of independence” (p.226). But an Exhibition of English painting, organized “on the other side of the Atlantic” by the gallery owner Ernest Gambart, brought disappointment. America, “which could not handle subtleties, treated her badly”. Alongside scenes painted by Jemina Blackburn, an observer and painter of the minute detail of birds, the “childish works of Lizzie Siddal attracted no-one” (p.148). In her favour, the writer narrates that she “had that which precedes time, a certain inaugural roughness, an unrealized eloquence. She had the power of the great primitives, those who generate the new thanks to the suggestiveness of their failures” (p.148). But there were more practical issues at hand, like space to work, for example. In the house at Chatham Place, “Lizzie’s works competed for space with the ‘Guggums’ (Gabriel’s works), shining in the pale light with the sadness which belongs to the figures of ghosts” (p.277).

A strong admixture of laudanum and exhaustion prevented Elizabeth Siddal in July 1862 from attaining her 33rd birthday. Had she lived for two or three decades longer, she might have developed eloquence and even, who knows, been able to combine drifting, work and autonomy. The foundations for a time of greater encouragement of freedom for women and the discovery of individual happiness were beginning to be laid down. Three voices, among many others, heralded the willingness for change. In English, in 1869, a clear male voice was dismantling the custom of centuries which distorted the relationship of women to men: “All women are brought up from the very earliest years in the belief that their ideal of character is the very opposite to that of men; not self-will, and government by self-control, but submission, and yielding to the control of others. All the moralities tell them that it is the duty of women, and all the current sentimentalities that it is their nature, to live for others; to make complete abnegation of themselves, and to have no life but in their affections.” (John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women) [9]. From France in 1871, came the enthusiastic voice of a boy who wrote like one who opens his arms and speaks loudly, while around him others lower their eyes: “When woman’s endless servitude is broken, when she lives for and through herself, when man – previously abominable – has granted her freedom, she too will be a poet! Women will discover the unknown! Will her world of ideas differ from ours? – She will discover strange things, unfathomable, repulsive, delicious: we will take them to us, we will understand them.” (Arthur Rimbaud, “Letter to Paul Demeny” [10]). Later on, a female voice would say that how “baleful” was the desire of human beings to merge, the will to be grafted onto another, all in the name of love; when the path is a different one: “each human being should be rooted in a particular ground, so as to become a whole world for the other” (Lou Andreas-Salomé, Intimate Notebooks from the Final Years [11]).

 


Teresa Duarte Martinho

 

 

:::

 

Acknowledgments
This text was translated by Richard Wall with the support of FCT, through its strategic project UID/SOC/50013/2013


:::

 

References

Adoecer by Hélia Correia, Relógio D’Água, 2010, 291 pages
Painting with Light. Art and Photography from the Pre-Raphaelites to the modern age - Exhibition at Tate Britain (11 may – 25 september 2016)


:::

 

Notes

[1] Hélia Correia (1949) is the author of novels, novels, short stories, theatre and poetry and was awarded the Camões Prize in 2015, which is considered the most important literary prize for Portuguese-speaking authors (among the winners are Vergílio Ferreira, Agustina Bessa-Luis and Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen).
[2] Baudelaire, Charles. 1857. “New Notes on Edgar Poe”, The Painter of Modern Life and Other Essays.
[3] Breton, André. [1937] 1988. Mad Love. Bison Book, pp. 41-57.
[4] See http://www.rossettiarchive.org/docs/s62.rap.html.
[5] Howard, Jeremy (ed.). 1990. Whisper of the Muse. The World of Julia Margaret Cameron. London: P & D Colnaghi & Co, Ltd. Catalogue of the exhibition at the Royal Photographic Society.
[6] “What to say about…John Ruskin”, The Guardian, 24 march 2000.
[7] “Ford Madox Brown: pre-Raphaelite pioneer and working-class hero”, The Guardian, 16 september 2011.
[8] Marsh, Marsh, “Elizabeth Siddal — Pre Raphaelite Artist”. Text for exhibition at The Ruskin Gallery, Sheffield, 1991.
[9] Mill, John Stuart. 1869. The Subjection of Women. See https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mill-john-stuart/1869/subjection-women/index.htm.
[10] Rimbaud, Arthur, “Letter to Paul Denemy, 15 May 1871”.
See http://www.mag4.net/Rimbaud/en/DocumentsE1.html.
[11] In Ferreira, Luzilá Gonçalves. 1988. “Lou Andreas-Salomé: a paixão viva”. In Adauto Novaes (org.), Os Sentidos da Paixão. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, p. 370.